Antibiotics are the common drugs used to treat several infections caused by bacteria. They are used in common infections like ear infections, urinary tract infections, strep throat, skin infections, et al. They are the most widely used and extremely important classes of drugs.
Every person uses antibiotics in his lifetime. There are numerous antibiotics present that are used according to the issue they are indicated to treat. No single antibiotic can cure all the infections known to trouble the human beings. Different classifications of the antibiotics are used to treat different infections.
Uses of Bacterial Antibiotics
Antibiotics are broadly indicated to treat the infections caused by various strains of bacteria. They include the infections caused by staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus, E. Coli, etc. Antibiotics can be bacteriostatic or bactericidal.
Bacteriostatic antibiotics are the antibiotic drugs that do not allow the bacteria to reproduce and thus arrest the spread of the infections.
Bactericidal antibiotics are the antibiotics that kill the bacteria causing infection inside the body.
Indications of Bacterial Antibiotics
The indication of antibiotic is specific for the kind of bacteria it works upon. An antibiotic can treat a certain kind of bacteria. You cannot use the antibiotics interchangeably to treat different bacterial infections.
If antibiotics are used interchangeably, they are liable to cause more harm than doing any good. Thus, they must be used correctly to derive maximum benefit of them and to minimize the side- effects caused by them.
When should we refrain from using bacterial antibiotics?
As already said, we must not use bacterial antibiotics to treat all the kinds of infections. The common infections like sore throat, flu, cough and cold, etc are viral infections. They cannot be treated with the use of bacterial antibiotics. There are specific antiviral drugs for the purpose. Using antibiotics to treat these infections can develop resistance against antibiotics and also lead to numerous side- effects.
Side- effects of bacterial antibiotics
Bacterial antibiotics can lead to several side- effects. The side- effects can range from mild to severe to life- threatening. They include:
- Upset stomach
- Allergic reaction
- White patches on tongue
- Rashes and others
Some common antibiotics
They are beta- lactum antibiotics. They contain 5 groups of antibiotics that include antipseudomonal penicillins, penicillinase resistant penicillins, beta-lactamase inhibitors, aminopenicillins, and natural penicillins.
Commonly used antibiotics include amoxicillin, augmentin, penicillin V potassium, et al.
They are broad- spectrum antibiotics that work against numerous bacteria. They are used in treatment of urinary tract infections, skin infections, sexually transmitted diseases, et al.
Commonly used tetracycline antibiotics include tetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline, et al.
There are 5 generations of cephalosporins. They are used in the treatment of gram- negative bacterial infections like strep throat, urinary tract infections, ear infections, skin infections, et al.
Commonly used cephalosporin antibiotics include ceftriaxone, cefdinir, cefuroxime, et al.
There are many other kinds of antibiotics like quinolones, lincomycins, sulphonamides, macrolides, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides antibiotics, etc.
Bacterial antibiotics can be used orally as well as topically.